Technology - The process by which humans modify nature to meet their needs and wants.Invention- A unique device, method, composition, process or discovery that did not exist previouslyInnovation – An improvement on an existing inventionPatent – Protection rights to an inventionTrademark – Rights to a product name, symbol, or logoObsolete technology - outdated computer hardware, software, or other technology that is no longer used, even if they are in working condition. A technology often becomes obsolete when replaced by newer or better technology
The 6 Categories of technology1. Construction 2. Transportation 3. Energy/power 4. Communication 5. Manufacturing 6. Bio relatedTransportation Technology - Technology that aids in the movement of people, animals, and goods from one location to another. Modes of transportation include: air, rail, road, water, cable, pipeline, and spaceCommunication Technology - A process of designing , constructing, and maintaining technological systems for the purpose of sending and receiving information
Construction Technology - Deals with the designing, planning, construction, and management of infrastructures such as roads, tunnels, bridges, airports, railroads, facilities, buildings, dams, utilities and other projects.
2-23 Bio-related technology - applies the principles of biology to create commercial products or processes. Deals with living things Plants, Animals, People.
2-24 Energy/power technology - The Ability to do work or cause change. Considered the “food” of technology. All other areas depend on it
2-25 Manufacturing technology - is the production or making of merchandise using labor and machines, tools, in which raw materials are transformed into finished goods on a large scale. The term may refer to a range of human activity, from craft made (individual), to assembly line (mass production)2-26 Design process - is a series of steps that engineers follow to come up with a solution to a problem.
The steps of the engineering design process are to:
Define the Problem (include constraints and requirements)
Choose the Best Solution
Build a Prototype
Test and Redesign3-1 System – A combination of parts working together to accomplish a goal. The first step in solving a problem that involves a system is analyzing that system. This involves breaking it down into the parts that make it up, and seeing how those parts work together.3-2 Design constraints are conditions that need to happen for a project to be successful. These are the limitations3-3 Forging - Is a manufacturing process involving the shaping of metals using compressive forces. The blows are delivered with a hammer (often a power hammer or die).3-4 Malleability - the ability of a material to be hammered, rolled, or pressed into various shapes without rupture or fracture3-5 Mining The extraction of valuable minerals from the earth. Metals, iron, uranium, coal, diamonds, limestone, oil shale, rock salt and potash. Any material that cannot be grown or created in a laboratory, is usually mined.3-8 Battery - A device consisting of one or more electrochemical cells with external connections provided to power electrical devices such as flashlights, smartphones, and electric cars.3-9 Voltage - The pressure from an electrical circuit's power source that pushes charged electrons (current) through a conducting loop, enabling them to do work such as illuminating a light. In brief, voltage = pressure, and it is measured in volts (V).3-10 Direct current (DC) is electrical current which flows consistently in one direction. The current that flows in a flashlight or another device running on batteries is direct current.3-11 Electric circuit A path through which an electrical current flows. The path may be closed (joined at both ends), making it a loop. A closed circuit makes electrical current flow possible3-15 Series circuit Components connected along a single path, so the same current flows through all of the components.
3-16 Tower- a tall structure, usually taller than it is wide, often by a significant margin. Towers are generally built to take advantage of their height, and can stand alone on the ground, or as part of a larger structure.3-17 Electrical conductor - A conductor is a material which electricity, heat or sound can flow through. Most metals, like iron and copper, are electrical conductors. These metals are used to make wires to carry electric current.3-18 Electrical insulator A material in which the electrons do not flow freely or easily. material that prevents the flow of electrical current on its surface
Examples of good electrical Insulators: wood, plastic, glass, rubber
3-22 Civil engineer - designs and supervises large construction projects, including roads, buildings, airports, tunnels, dams, bridges, and systems for water supply and sewage treatment.3-23 Cold Forming - Mechanical operation (such as bending, drawing, hammering, rolling) in which a metal shape is permanently deformed into a new shape, normally at room temperature. Cold forming increases the hardness and strength of the metal3-24 Ergonomics is the science of designing safe and comfortable machines for humans. In product design, ergonomics deals with several things including how the user will hold, use and manipulate the device or product.3-25 Wire Gauge (AWG) - Measurement of how large a wire is. The diameter. Determines the amount of electric current a wire can safely carry.3-26 Circuit breaker an automatically operated electrical switch designed to protect an electrical circuit from damage caused by excess current from an overload or short circuit.
4-6 Alternating current (AC) - Electric current which reverses direction continuously. Alternating current is the form in which electric power is delivered in the form of that consumers typically use when they plug kitchen appliances, televisions, fans and electric lamps into a wall socket4-7 Ground Fault Circuit Interupter (GFCI) device protects us from receiving electric shocks from faults in the electrical devices we use in our home, usually around wet areas, such as bathrooms and kitchens.
4-8 Electromagnet - A core of magnetic material (such as iron) surrounded by a coil of wire through which an electric current is passed to magnetize the core.4-9 Electric Motor - An electro-mechanical device that converts electrical energy into mechanical energy by employing electromagnetic theory.4-12 Airfoil- a shape designed so that air flowing around it produces useful motion4-13 Lift The force that directly opposes the weight of an airplane and holds the airplane in the air. Lift is generated by every part of the airplane, but mostly by the wings. Lift is a mechanical aerodynamic force produced by the motion of the airplane through the air.4-14 Symmetry - means a mirror image -- one side is the mirror image of the other. Symmetry can occur in any orientation as long as the image is the same on either side of the central axis.4-15 Gravity - the force that pulls down on any object near the surface of the earthDrag - resistance or friction force experienced by any object moving through air4-16 Aerodymanics - The word comes from two Greek words: aerios, concerning the air, and dynamis, which means force. Aerodynamics is studying the way air moves around things.
4-19 Elevators The elevators are located on the back of the main wing.
When the air flows over and under the elevator, it creates a lift that change the balance of forces. For example, if the elevators are up, they create less lift, and a momentum is created, that force the back of the airplane down, taking the nose up.
Remember this rule of thumb: Elevator Up = Tail Down = Nose Up4-20 No word - State Test4-21 Ailerons –changes the airflow across the wing, increasing and decreasing the amount of lift the wing creates. Allows the plane to roll from side to side.4-22 Wind Tunnel - Large tubes with air blowing through themwhich are used to replicate the interaction between air and the object flying through the air and an object flying through the air or moving along the ground. Researchers use wind tunnels to learn more about how an aircraft will fly.4-23 Thrust - is the force which moves the rocket through the air, and through space. Thrust is generated by the propulsion system of the rocket through the application of Newton's third law.4-26 Rudder - a primary control surface used to steer a ship, boat, submarine, or aircraft, that moves through a fluid (generally air or water). On an aircraft the rudder is used primarily to control.4-27 Tail fin - Keeps the plane on track in a straight path. If the plane swerves horizontally, the side pressure on the tail fin tends to correct its direction.4/28 Propeller - A mechanical device for propelling a boat or aircraft, consisting of a revolving shaft with two or more broad, angled blades attached to it4/29 Aerospace Engineer - Aerospace engineers develop new technologies for use in aviation, define systems, and space exploration.4/30 Balsa wood - Comes from the Chroma pyramidale tree, which grows in South and Central America. Actually, its more of a huge flowering weed than a tree. It is a lightweight wood used chiefly for making models.4-30 Wood Joint - A part of woodworking that involves joining together pieces of wood by various methods (examples include, nails, screws, glue, etc.)5-6 Angle of attack - The angle at whichan airplane wing strikes the airstream.Stall - The complete loss of lift resulting resulting from too steep of an angle of attack.5-7 Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1726) was an English mathematician, physicist In mechanics, Newton's laws of motion are three laws that describe the relationship between the motion of an object and the forces acting on it5-10 Newtons third law of motion - For every action, there is an equal, opposite reaction.5-11 Unbalanced force - Refers to the total or net force exerted on an object. An unbalanced force will create a change in motion.9-23-20 Design process - is a series of steps that engineers follow to come up with a solution to a problem.
The steps of the engineering design process are to:
1 Define the Problem (include constraints and requirements)
2 Collect information
3 Brainstorm Solutions
4 Choose the Best Solution
5 Build a Prototype
6 Test and Redesign
9-24-20 Design constraints - are conditions that need to happen for a project to be successful. These are the limitations. Examples include: Cost, time, and available materials
10-1-20 Industrial Revolution, the process of change from a handcraft (craft made) economy to one dominated by industry and machine manufacturing. This process began in Britain in the 18th century and from there spread to other parts of the world.
10-2-20 No Word today
10-6-20 Ruler - A ruler, sometimes called a rule or line gauge, is a device used in geometry and technical drawing, as well as the engineering and construction industries, to measure or draw straight lines
10-7-20 Customary measurement system - The customary measurement system is the system of measurement in the United States. This system measures length in inches, feet, yards, and miles; Capacity in cups, pints, Quarts, and gallons, weight in ounces, pounds, and tons, and temperature in degrees Fahrenheit
10-8-20 The metric system is used to measure the length, weight or volume of an object. Length is measured in millimeters (mm), centimeters (cm), meters (m) or kilometers (km).
10-9-20 The inch - The smallest whole unit of length measurement in the customary system, with measurements smaller than an inch being stated using the fractions 1/2, 1/4 , 1/8,and 1/16. The symbol for inch is (”).
10-13-20 Specification - The detailed description of the design standards of a product, including type and amount of materials. What materials are to be used for a project as well as the standards and government regulations that must be followed.
10-14-20 ToleranceThe amount that a part can varyfrom the specified design size and still be used
10-15-20 Mile-An English unit of length of linear measurement measure equal to 5,280 feet, or 1,760 yards (approximately 1.609 kilometers)
10-16-20 Dimension - a numerical value expressed in appropriate units of measurement and used to define the size, location, orientation, form or other geometric characteristics of a part.
10-19-20 - Fathom - A unit of length equal to six feet (approximately 1.8 m), chiefly used in reference to the depth of water
10-23-20 Battery - A device consisting of one or more electrochemical cells with external connections provided to power electrical devices such as flashlights, smartphones, and electric cars
10-26-20 Voltage - The pressure from an electrical circuit's power source that pushes charged electrons (current) through a conducting loop, enabling them to do work such as illuminating a light. In brief, voltage = pressure, and it is measured in volts (V).
10-27-20 Direct current (DC) - is electrical current which flows consistently in one direction. The current that flows in a flashlight or another device running on batteries is direct current.
10-28-20 Electric circuit A path through which an electrical current flows. The path may be closed (joined at both ends), making it a loop. A closed circuit makes electrical current flow possible
10-29-20 Alternating current (AC) - Electric current which reverses direction continuously. Alternating current is the form in which electric power is delivered in the form of that consumers typically use when they plug kitchen appliances, televisions, fans and electric lamps into a wall socket
10-30-20 Series circuit - Components connected along a single path, so the same current flows through all of the components
11-6-20 Body Tube- Most often constructed from thin wall paper tubing, it is the main part of the rocket which all other parts are either attached to or contained inside.
11-10-20 Nose Cone- Used to guide the airflow smoothly around the rocket. The cone is shaped to offer minimum aerodynamic resistance. 11-1-20 Fins- Attached to the end of the rocket, they provide guidance after the rocket leaves the launch-pad
11-19-20 Shock Cord- Elastic cord that absorbs the shock caused by the ejection charge that forces the nose cone out.
11-24-20 Streamer- Recovery device that helps to slow the rockets descend during touchdown.
12-1-20 Fins- Attached to the end of the rocket, they provide guidance after the rocket leaves the launch-pad
Abutment - The ground end-support of a bridge, especially to resist the horizontal thrust of an arch.2-28-19 Trough Truss - Refers to a truss on top of a bridgeDeck Truss - Refers to a truss under the road deck.
2-25-17 Span - Part of a bridge between two supports. The span will often determine the type of bridge that will be built. As the span increases so does the cost.
Bridge Deck - The roadway or the pedestrian walkway, surface of a bridge. The deck material may be wood, concrete, or steel grating. Girders and steel I beams support the deck.
2-29-17 Arch Bridge - one of the oldest types of bridges which have been around for thousands of years. Arch bridges have great natural strength. Arch bridges deal with the force of compression.
3-1-17 Gusset Plate - A metal plate used to unite multiple structural members of a truss. They may be welded, riveted, or bolted.-10 -Technology – the practical use of human knowledge to extend abilities, satisfy needs and wants, and solve problems.
2-13 Invention- is a unique device, method, composition, process or discovery that did not exist previously.
Innovation – an improvement to an existing invention. Better solutions that meet new requirements, or existing market needs.2-14-Patent – protection rights to an invention.Trademark– is a recognizable sign, design, or expression which identifies products or services of a particular source from those of others.2-15-Engineer -applies scientific knowledge, mathematics, and ingenuity to develop technical solutions for problems facing mankind.2-16 -Prototype -is an early sample, model, or release of a product built to test a concept or process or to act as a thing to be replicated or learned from.2-21 -Infrastructure -the basic physical systems of a business or nation. Examples include: transportation, communication, sewage, water, and electric systems.2-22 -Civil engineer - designs and supervises large construction projects, including roads, buildings, airports, tunnels, dams, bridges, and systems for water supply and sewage treatment.2-23 - No word of the day. IBM engineer visitation.2-24 - Bridge -a structure built to span physical obstacles such as a body of water, valley, or road, for the purpose of providing passage over the obstacle2-27 -Truss- is a framework of one or more triangles constructed with straight members. The simplest form of a truss is one single triangle as seen in a framed roof.2-28 -Compression - A force that squeezes material together.
Tension - A force that pulls material apart.3-1 -Beam bridge - the simplest structural forms for bridge spans supported by an abutment or pier at each end. The beam bridge supports the least amount of weight and is best for short distances.3-2 - Arch Bridge - one of the oldest types of bridges which have been around for thousands of years. Arch bridges have great natural strength.•Arch bridges deal with the force of compression.3-3 -Cable-stayed bridge - a bridge in which the weight of the deck is supported by a number of cables running directly to one or more towers.3-6 -Suspension bridge -a bridge in which the weight of the deck is supported by vertical cables suspended from larger cables that run between towers and are anchored in abutments at each end.