• WAPPINGERS CENTRAL SCHOOL DISTRICT

     

    ADVANCED PLACEMENT MUSIC THEORY

                       Syllabus 

     

    Candice Ruffalo, Instructor

    John Jay High School Choral and Theory Department

    845-897-6700   x30066

    Candice.Ruffalo@wcsdny.org

     

     

     

    ADVANCED PLACEMENT MUSIC THEORY meets every day for 46 minutes. Students in Advanced Placement Music Theory will have successfully completed Music Theory I during the previous school year. Although not a requirement, all students enrolled in this class are strongly encouraged to take the A.P. Music Theory Exam in May.

     

    Due to the intensity of the subject material to be taught in class, students are expected to come prepared to class with:

     

    An organized notebook

    Staff (manuscript) paper

    Pencils

    Completed homework assignments

     

     

     

    After school help and review is available by appointment. All students are welcomed and encouraged to attend.

    Notebook organization: 10%

    Homework: 30%

    Assessments (quizzes and tests): 40%

    Final Project: 20%

    Total: 100%

     

    Students will be assessed and given homework regularly as to provide as much practice for the AP Exam as possible. A final project will be given in this class. The final project is a different than the AP exam. All assessments, homework, tests and the final project will be weighted as follows:

     

     

     

     

     

    RESOURCE MATERIALS

     

     

    Clendinning, Jane Piper, and Elizabeth West Marvin.  2011. The Musician’s Guide to Aural Skills, Volume 1.  2nd ed.  New York:  W. W. Norton.

    Clendinning, Jane Piper, and Elizabeth West Marvin.  2011.  The Musician’s Guide to Theory and Analysis, 2nd ed.  New York: W. W. Norton.

    Ottman, Robert W. 1998.  Elementary Harmony Theory and Practice. 5th ed. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.

    Ottman, Robert W. 1996.  Music for Sight Singing.  4th ed.  New Jersey: Prentice Hall.

    Palisca, Claude V. (editor).  1988. Norton Anthology of Western Music Volume II.  Second Edition. London/New York: W. W. Norton & Company.

    Spencer, Peter. 2004.  The Practice of Harmony.  5th ed. New York:  Simon & Schuster Macmillan.

     

    Teacher Created Materials

    Material from the College Board AP Music Theory Materials, 2011

     

    Technology Aids:

    Ricci Adams’s interactive tutorials: www.musictheory.net

    Website for working in notation:  www.noteflight.com

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

    Theory Curricular Requirements:          

    • The course enables students to move toward a mastery level of the rudiments and terminology of music: notational skills, intervals, scales, keys, chords, meter, and rhythm

     

    • The course progresses to include more sophisticated and creative tasks such as: realization of a figured bass, realization of a Roman numeral progression, writing a bass line for a given melody or harmonization of a given melody in four parts

     

    • Analysis of repertoire, including analysis of motivic treatment and harmonic analysis

     

     

    • The course includes the following scales: major, 3 forms of minor, pentatonic, whole, and modal

     

    • The course also covers (concepts and procedures based in the common-practice period) functional triadic harmony in traditional four-voice texture including non-harmonic tones, seventh chords, and secondary dominants, modulation to closely related keys

     

    • The course also teaches phrase structure, small forms (e.g. binary, rounded binary simple ternary, theme and variation)

     

    • Musical skills are developed through the following types of exercises:

     

        Listening (discrete intervals, scales, dictations, excerpts for contextual listening)

        Sight-singing

        Written exercises and creative exercises

     

    Expectations of Students:

    1. Students will participate in all classroom discussions and activities
    2. Students will complete all assigned exercises and homework
    3. Students will keep and maintain a Music Theory notebook which will include class notes, handouts, assignments and assessments
    4. Students will study released AP Exams and take practice tests to prepare for the exam
    5. Students will sing.  The voice is a functional, mechanical instrument or tool for training the brain- this is not a performance class.
    6. Students will submit a final project which will be a composition. The composition will be required to demonstrate the understanding and synthesis of concepts presented and learned.

    7.    Students will apply what they learn to any and all music excerpts, examples, compositions, etc.

     

     

    Expanded Course Objectives

     

    Students will be able to:

    1. Identify and notate pitch in four clefs: treble, bass, alto and tenor.
    2. Notate, hear, and identify simple and compound meters.
    3. Notate and identify all major and minor key signatures.
    4. Notate, hear, and identify the following scales: chromatic, major, and the three minor forms. Also hear and identify whole tone, pentatonic, and blues scales.
    5. Name and recognize scale degree terms, for example: tonic, supertonic, median, subdominant, dominant, submediant, subtonic/leading tone.
    6. Notate, hear, and transpose the following modes: Dorian, Phrygian, Lydian, and Mixolydian.
    7. Recognize at sight and by hearing a whole tone and pentatonic scale.
    8. Notate, hear, and identify all major, minor, diminished, and augmented intervals inclusive of an octave

    9.    Notate, hear, and identify triads, including inversions.

    1. Notate, hear, and identify authentic, plagal, half, and deceptive cadences in major and minor keys.
    2. Detect pitch and rhythm errors in written music from given aural excerpts.
    3. Notate a melody from dictation, 8 bars, in a major key, mostly diatonic pitches, simple or compound time in three to four repetitions.
    4. Notate a melody from dictation, 4-8 bars long, in a minor key, chromatic alteration from the harmonic/melodic scales, simple or compound time in three to four repetitions.
    5. Sight-sing a melody 4- 8 bars long, major or minor key, duple or triple meter, or compound time, using solfeg, numbers, or any comfortable vocal syllable(s).

    16.  Realize a figured bass according to the rules of the eighteenth century chorale style, major or minor key, using any of all of the following devices: diatonic triads, seventh chords, inversions, NCTS, and secondary dominants and dominant seventh chords.

    1. Analyze a four-part chorale style piece using Roman and Arabic Numerals to represent chords and their inversions.
    2. Notate, hear, and identify the following NCTS:  passing tone (accented and unaccented), neighboring tone, anticipation, suspension, retardation, appoggiatura, escape tone, changing tone, pedal tone.
    3. Notate the soprano and bass pitches and the Roman and Arabic Numeral analysis of a harmonic dictation, eighteenth-century chorale style, seventh chords, secondary dominants, 4-8 bars, major or minor key, in three to four repetitions.
    4. Compose a melody or expand a motive, 4-8 bars, given specific directions about key, mode, phrasing, rhythm, and harmonic language. Harmonize a melody by writing a bass line, chords, and/ or chord symbols, given specific directions about key, mode, phrasing, rhythmic and harmonic language.
    5. Define and identify common tempo and expression markings.
    6. Identify aurally and/or visually the following:  modulation, transposition, melodic and harmonic rhythm, sequence, imitation, ostinato, augmentation, and diminution.
    7. Recognize standard musical algorithms, i.e., standard melodic, rhythmic, and harmonic idioms that occur in music.

     

    CREATIVE EXERCISES  - will be assigned a minimum of once every quarter with a possibility of two assignments in one quarter

    Minor original student compositions may include:

    A piece in binary or ternary form

    A piece based on a minor mode, a church mode, whole-tone or pentatonic scale

    An 8-measure sight-singing example which follows the style and form of the common practice period- to be read by the class

    A sight-singing example using non-chord tones- to be read by the class

    A  melodic dictation using major, minor, modal scales with NTCs allowed- to be dictated by the student to the class

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

    COURSE OUTLINE by Quarter

     

     

    WEEKS 1 - 10

     

    Introduction to course

     

    Review:

     

                Music Vocabulary

               

    Key Signatures

                            Major and Relative Minor

                            Building Scales

                            Modal, pentatonic, chromatic, whole-tone, blues scales

                Meters

                            Simple

                            Compound

                            Duple, Triple, Quadruple

                            Alternating, Mixed, Irregular

     

     

                Review Notation

                            Rhythmic Dictation

     

     

    Readings and assignments will come from:

    Ottman Ch. 1,2,3

    Spencer Ch. 1,2,3

     

    QUIZ

     

                Intervals, Pitch Patterns

                            Melodic Dictation

                            Bass, Treble, Moveable Clefs

     

                Ear Training

                            Recognizing sonorities of major, minor, diminished, augmented triads, intervals

                            Scale Degrees, Chord Functions

                            Hearing Tonic, Subdominant, Dominant

    QUIZ

     

     

                Harmonic, Melodic Dictation

     

                Chord Building

                            Major, minor, augmented, diminishes

                            Building Tonic, Subdominant, Dominant chords in different keys

                            Building I, IV and V chords in both Major and minor keys

     

                Chord Inversions

                            Creating and Understanding inversions

                              Analyzing root position and inverted triads

     

    Readings and Assignments will come from:

    Ottman Ch. 4,5,6

     

                Cadences

                            Perfect, Imperfect Authentic

                            Plagal, Half, Deceptive

     

    Readings and Assignments will come from:

    Spencer Ch. 8

     

                Chord Analysis

                            Using I, II, III, IV, V, VI, VII

                            Identifying chords and sonorities

                            Labeling chords correctly

                     Identifying keys, chords, inversions and cadences in written and listening examples

     

    QUIZ

     

                            Modulation

     

                Nonharmonic Tones

                            Creating, Identifying by Ear and Eye

                            Passing, Neighboring, Appogiaturas, Escape Tones, Pedal Point

                            Suspensions, Anticipations, retardations

     

    Readings and Assignments will come from:

    Spencer Ch 24, 25

     

                           

                ***SIGHTSINGING WILL OCCUR WEEKLY

                Sightsinging in Bass and Treble Clefs, Moveable Clefs - in Major and minor keys (Ottman)

     

               

                ***EAR TRAINIGNG WILL OCCUR WEEKLY

                Harmonic and Melodic Dictation

     

     

    ***Practice Exercises from the AP Barrons Resource or from Past Exams will be given monthly or  bi-monthly

     

     

     

     

    WEEKS 10- 21

                           

                Hearing Seventh Chords

                            MM, Mm, mm. half and fully dim.

                            Dominant Seventh

                            Leading Tone and Seventh

                Secondary Dominants and Leading Tone Chords

                Creating and Identifying Seventh Chords in music examples

     

    QUIZ

     

               

                Melody

                            Analysis of motivic treatment

    Imitation, repetition, fragmentation, expansion, inversion, diminution, augmentation

     

                Melodic Phrase Forms/Structures

                            Symmetrical/Asymmetrical

                            Antecedent-Consequent

                            Parallel Period

                            Contrasting Period

                            Double Period

                            Repeated period

                            Modulation Period

                            Phrase Group

     

                Texture

                            Monophony, Homophony, Polyphony, melody and accompaniment

               

                Harmonic Progression

                Harmonic Rhythm

     

                Part Writing in Two Voices

                            Interesting bass lines, commonly used basslines

                            Using inversions

                            Soprano lines

     

                Part Writing in Four Voices

                            Realizing S, A, T, B from harmonic analysis

                            Part Writing Rules

     

                Figured Bass

                            Examples        

                            Realization

     

                Form

                            Binary, Ternary, Song, Rondo

                           

    Readings and Assignments will come from:

    Ottman Ch. 7

    Spencer Ch. 12,16, 20, 22

     

               

                ***SIGHTSINGING WILL OCCUR WEEKLY

                Sightsinging in Bass and Treble Clefs, Moveable Clefs - in Major and minor keys (Ottman)

     

               

                ***EAR TRAINIGNG WILL OCCUR WEEKLY

                Harmonic and Melodic Dictation

     

    ***Practice Exercises from the AP Barrons Resource or from Past Exams will be given monthly or bi-monthly

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

    WEEKS 22- 31

     

                Chord Progressions  (Writing, Realizing)

                            Common Chord Progressions

                            Major and minor keys

                            (Borrowed Chords)

     

    QUIZ    

                ***Review of first 20 weeks'  material

               

                MORE Sample Questions from AP Tests

                            Part 1 Samples

                            Free Response Samples

     

                MOCK EXAMS

     

     

                Sample Questions that need more practice

               

                Exam Review

               

                What to expect on exam day

     

     

     

     

    ***SIGHTSINGING WILL OCCUR WEEKLY

                Sightsinging in Bass and Treble Clefs, Moveable Clefs - in Major and minor keys (Ottman)

     

               

                ***EAR TRAINIGNG WILL OCCUR WEEKLY

                Harmonic and Melodic Dictation

     

    ***Practice Exercises from the AP Barrons Resource or from Past Exams will be given monthly or bi-monthly

     

     

     

     

     

    ADVANCED PLACEMENT MUSIC THEORY EXAM (date TBA)

     

     

    WEEK 32- 33

     

                Follow-up Post Exam

                            Discussion- How was it?

                            Creating Advice for future AP Theory Students

                           

     

     

    Weeks Circa 34- 39-  FINAL PROJECTS

     

                Students may work alone or in teams. A final project must be approved by instructor before it is begun. (cont’d.)

     

                Possible Projects can be, but are not limited to:

                            Composition and Performance

                            Final Paper

                            Transcribing a piece for your instrument

     

                Students are encouraged to be creative with their final projects, remembering that the projects must utilize concepts taught in this course

     

                Detailed information about final projects (form, structure, etc) will be distributed after the AP Examination

     

    Week 39-40

               

                Presentation of Final Projects

               

     

               

    Teaching Strategies:

     

    The size of the class lends perfectly itself to group discussion.  We work in front of the smart board together every day.  I may produce my own examples (part writings, roman numeral analyses, etc.) on the board and ask the students to work together, but I will also ask for students to produce their own examples for the rest of the class.  Students respond individually and as a group. It’s an open discussion and they are more than willing to listen to each other and ask each other how to approach drills  on fundamentals such as key signatures,  chord building, interval building, interval (aural and visual) identification, etc. They also work together on activities such as realizing a figured bass in four parts, part writing to roman numerals, and harmonizing melodies.

    I encourage sight singing constantly with sol feg and/or numbers.  The students like the challenge of using the different “language” for aural work.  I encourage sight singing when we’re part writing.  I have them sing the bass line and then write the soprano (melody) while singing it.  I have them sing their inner voices as well.  They literally get a feel for good voice leading that way.

    After doing melodic dictation, either I or they will write the answer on the smart board.  When I am producing their answer, I ask them to sol feg it as I will take their dictation.  We do the same with Harmonic dictation.  They will sing their soprano and bass line answers and then we will discuss the chord progressions followed.

    In preparation for the AP Exam, I begin offering AP Music Theory Exam –Style questions as early as September.  The students love the challenge of the “puzzles”.  I make certain to guide them through the “unpacking” of the questions.  By March, I have given the students plenty of opportunity of experience with AP Exam-type activities.  We work on the Free Response-Type questions as well and I make certain to model many of my assignments on them.  To further prepare students for the exam, I make every attempt to follow (within reason) the procedures of the exam, especially for the Free Response questions.   For example, in working on the harmonic dictation, FR 4/5, I give them one hearing with a wait of 30 seconds afterward, and then I give them three more hearings with one minute intervals in between.  The students begin to grow comfortable with the time frame in which they are to work, thus, they develop their own strategies for being successful within it.

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

    Strategies for guided listening

     

    It is imperative the Advanced Placement Music Theory student listen to a variety of musical examples during the course of the year.  An entire section of the exam is comprised of listening examples with multiple choice questions.  Some of the listening examples are from the text “Music, an Appreciation” by Kamien.  Other examples are from a teacher-generated collection. Students must utilize the Vocabulary section in conjunction with the listening section.  The following is a list of topics to be “listened for”.   While all musical examples contain aspects of the following primary elements, the chart indicates the elements to be focused on during the listening lessons.  The listening repertoire was selected to represent a wide variety of styles and time periods.

     

    A.  Form. Phrase Structure

    B.  Harmonic Structure, cadence, modality

    C.  Melodic Structure

    D.  Texture

    E.  Rhythmic Structure, tempo

     

     

    Listening List for Advanced Placement Music Theory

     

    Composer                    Piece                            Period                           Listening for…

    Wagner

    Lohengrin, Prelude to act III

    Romantic

    A, C

    Chopin

    Prelude in C minor for Piano, Opus 28 N. 20

    Romantic

    A, B

    Stravinsky

    The Firebird,  Scene 2

    20th Century

    A, C

     

    Ellington

    C-Jam Blues

    Early Jazz

    A, B, E

    Brubeck

    Unsquare Dance

    Jazz

    A, E

    Tchaikovsky

    Dance of the Reed Pipes from Nutcracker

     

     

    Romantic

    C, D, E

    Palestrina

    Kyrie from Pope Marcellus Mass

     

    Renaissance

    C, D

    Morley

    Now is the Month

    of Maying

    Renaissance

    A, C, D

    Bach

    Brandenburg Concerto No. 5 in D Major

    Baroque

    B, D, E

    Bach

    Organ Fugue in G minor

    Baroque

     

    A, B, C, D

    Vivaldi

    La Primavera (Spring) from the four seasons

    Baroque

    A, D, E

    Handel

    Sinfonia for Orchestra, Comfort Ye, my people, Every Valley shall be Exalted from Messiah

    Baroque

    C, D

    Mozart

    Symphony No. 40 in G minor

    Classical

    A, B, C

    Haydn

    Symphony No. 94 in G Major (Surprise)

    Classical

    A, B, C

    Beethoven

    Symphony No 5 in C minor

    Classical-Romantic

    A, B, C, D, E

    Schubert

    Erlkoenig

    Romantic

    A, C, D, E

    Mendelssohn

    Violin Concerto in E minor

    Romantic

    B, C

    Tchaikovsky

    Romeo and Juliet, Fantasy-Overture

    Romantic

    C, D, E

    Smetana

    De Moldau

    Romantic

    C, D

    Brahms

    How Lovely is thy Dwelling place from a German Requiem

    Romantic

    B, C, E

    Debussy

    Afternoon of a Faun

    20th Century

    B, D

    Stravinsky

    Symphony of Psalms, first movement

    20th Century

    B, D, E

    Bartok

    Concerto for Orchestra 1st and 2nd movements

    20th Century

    B, C, E

    Shostakovich

    Symphony No. 5 in E minor, 2nd movement

    20th Century

    B, C, E

    Gershwin

    Rhapsody in Blue

    20th Century

    B, C, E

    Copeland

    Appalachian Spring Section 7

     

    20th Century

     

     

     

     

    A, D, E

    Penderecki

    Threnody: To the Victims of Hiroshima

    20th Century

    B, C, D, E

    Joplin

    Maple Leaf Rag

    Jazz

    A, D, E

    Bernstein

    Quintet from West Side Story, (Tonight)

    American Musical Theater

    C, D

    Ravi Shankar

    Maru-Bihag, excerpt

    Non-Western Music

    A, B, C, D, E

     

     

    Brubeck

    Blue Shadows

    20th Century

    A, E

    Rimsky-Korsakoff

    Flight of the Bumblebee

    20th Century

     

     

     

     

    A, B, E

    Grieg

    Morning from Peer Gynt: Suite No. 1

    20th Century

    A, B

    Joplin

    The Entertainer

    Jazz

    A, D, E

    Puccini

    Nessun Dorma” from “Turandot”

    Romantic

    B, D

    Handel

    Halleluja  from “The Messiah”

    Non-Western Music

    A, B, C, D, E

     

     

     

     

     

     

    Strategies for teaching vocabulary

     

    For students to be successful in taking the Advanced Placement Music Theory exam, they must be familiar with musical terminology that is used in describing and analyzing musical examples.  The following is a list of vocabulary that has been used in released past AP exams. Students must learn this vocabulary as they progress through the listening and writing material in this curriculum.  

     

     

    I.  Scales:

    Major

    Minor

    Harmonic Minor

    Natural Minor

    Harmonic Minor

    Melodic Minor

    Modes

                    Ionian (Major)

                    Dorian

                    Phrygian

                    Lydian

                    Mixolydian

                    Aeolian (Natural Minor)

                    Locrian

     

    Chromatic Scale

    Blues Scale

    Octatonic Scale

    Pentatonic

    Whole Tone


    Terms that relate to scales

     

    Key signature

    Accidental

    Diatonic

    Tonal

    Tonality

    Modality

    Parallel Key

    Relative Key

    Chromatic Alteration

     

    II.               Chords and Intervals

     

    Major Triad

    Minor Triad

    Augmented Triad

    Diminished Triad

    Major interval

    Minor Interval

    Augmented Interval

    Diminished Interval

    Perfect Interval

    Compound Interval

    Inversion (of an interval)

    Tritone

    Unison

    Numerical Names (2nd, 3rd, etc)

    Scale degree names: Tonic, Supertonic, Mediant, Subdominant, Dominant, Submediant, Leading tone, Subtonic.

    Consonance

    Dissonance

    Dominant seventh chord (Mm7)

    Minor seventh chord (mm7)

    Half Diminished seventh chord (   )

    Fully Diminished seventh chord (  )

    Secondary Dominant Chords (V/V)

    Root Position

    Inversions of Triads

    Inversions of 7th chords

    III. Chord Functions and Progressions

     

    The use of the second inversion chord

                    Cadential Second Inversion (I 6/4, V, I)

                    Pedal Second Inversion (I, IV 6/4, I)

                    Passing Second Inversion (I6, V6/4, I)

                    Arpeggiated Second Inversion

     

    Cadences

                    Authentic

                    Perfect Authentic

                    Imperfect Authentic

                    Half Cadence

                    Plagal Cadence

                    Deceptive Cadence

                    Phrygian Half Cadence

     

     

    IV. Non Harmonic Tones

     

    Passing tones (accented and unaccented)

    Neighboring tones (Upper and lower)

    Anticipation

    Suspension

    Retardation

    Rearticulated Suspension

    Embellishment

    Ornament

    Escape Tone

    Cambiata (changing tones)

    Pedal Tone

    Appoggiatura

    Grace Note

    Mordent / Turn

     

                                                                                                                                                                   

    V. Terms Relating to Rhythm

     

    Time Signature

    Simple Time

    Compound Time

    Duple

    Triple

    Quadruple

    Changing Meter

    Asymmetrical meter

    Accent

    Agogic Accent

    Cross Rhythm

    Hemiola

    Polyrhythm

    Swing Rhythm

    Syncopation

    Triplet

     

    VI. Performance Terms

     

    Articulation

    Pizzicato

    Arco

    Legato

    Staccato

    Dynamics (pp, p, mp, mf, f, ff)

    Crescendo

    Diminuendo

    Tenuto

    Marcato

    Tempo Markings

    Accelerando

    Adagio

    Allegro

    Andante

    Andantino

    Largo

    Lento

    Moderato

    Presto

    Ritardando

    Ritenuto

    Rubato

    Vivace

     

     

    VII. Voice Leading

     

    Soprano

    Alto

    Tenor

    Bass

    Close Position

    Open Position

    Doubling

    Parallel Motion

    Contrary Motion

    Oblique Motion

    Similar Motion

    Voice Crossing

    Cross Relation

    Hidden Fifths (direct 5ths)

    Hidden Octaves (direct octaves)

     

    VIII. Compositional Devices

    Alberti Bass

    Canon Canoic

    Chordal accompaniment

    Counter point

    Contrapuntal

    Imitation

    Counter Melody

    Descant

    Fugue

    Fugal

    Heterophony

    Homophony

    Monophony

    Ostinato

    Polyphony

    Walking bass

    Arpeggio

    Picardy Third

    Augmentation

    Diminution

    Inversion

    Sequence

    Transposition

    Retrograde

    Retrograde Inversion

    Fragmentation

    Theme and Variation

     

    IX. Miscellaneous Terms

    Melody

    Register

    Tessitura

    Instrumentation

    Timbre

    Contour

    Bridge

    Chorus

    Refrain

    Song Form

    12 bar Blues

    Verse

    Motive

    Theme

    Antecedent Phrase

    Consequent Phrase

    Binary Form Rounded Binary Form

    Ternary form

    Stanza

    Strophic

    Melismatic

    Syllabic

    Arpeggio

    Resolution