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          ELEMENTS OF ART
    The building blocks of art.
    LINE-
    Line is created by a moving point. It is a mark with length and direction. A line can vary in length,
    width, direction, curvature and color. It can be drawn, carved or sculpted (as in wire).
    SHAPE-
    Shape is a line that connects to itself. It is an enclosed space that has an inside and an outside.
    There are two kinds of shape:

     

    Organic:
    A naturally occurring shape; irregular and not defined. An organic shape is described.
    Geometric:
    Shapes that have a definition as in math class; square, triangle circle etc.
    ******A shape is ALWAYS!!! flat or two-dimensional*****
    VALUE-
    Value is the degree of light and dark. Another word used for value is "shading" when one represents
    shadow.An extreme contrast of light and dark is called "chiaroscuro", meaning "Light/dark" in Italian.
    FORM-
    Form is any three-dimensional object. It can be real or perceived. There are two kinds of form.
    Actual:
    The real object itself. You can actually hold it in your hand or touch the object.
    Implied: 
    Something that looks 3-d but you can't actually hold/touch it.
    TEXTURE
    The way something feels to the touch. There are two kinds.
    Actual-
    One can actually feel the texture, the fur on the dog, the fuzziness of the sweater, the roughness
    of the tree bark etc.
    Implied-
    A two-dimensional representation of the texture. One can see the fur of the dog but not touch it.
    COLOR-
    Color is reflected light. See the color notes for more details 
    SPACE-
    Space is the area around, below, inside, outside and between. Space is everywhere.
    There are two kinds of space:
    Positive:
    The object or subject in art. The area of focus.
    Negative:
    The empty space surrounding shapes or solid forms or the background.

     

    Both kinds of space are equally important. One cannot exist without the other.

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     THE 8 PRINCIPLES OF DESIGN
     
     
     
    balance, contrast, proportion, pattern, rhythm, emphasis, unity and variety(variation)
    BALANCE
    It describes the arrangement of parts of an artwork. An artwork that is balanced seems to
    have equal visual weight or interest in all areas. It seems stable.
    CONTRAST
    A large difference between two things: For example, rough and smooth, yellow and purple,
    andlight and shadow. Contrasts usually add excitement, drama and interest to artworks.
    PROPORTION
    The relation of one object to another in size, amount, number or degree
    PATTERN
    A choice of lines, colors or shapes, repeated over and over in a planned way. A pattern is also
    a model or guide for making something.
    RHYTHM
    It is a type of visual or actual movement in an artwork. It is created by repeating visual elements.
    Rhythms are often described as regular, alternating, flowing, progressive or jazzy.
    EMPHASIS
    It is an area in a work of art that catches and holds the viewers attention. This area usually has
    contrasting sizes,shapes, colors or other distinctive features.
    UNITY
    It is a feeling that all parts of a design are working together as a team.
    VARIETY (variation)
    It is a change in form, shape, detail or appearance that makes the object different from others.
    It can be the use of different lines, shapes, textures, colors and other elements of
    design/art to create interest in a work of art.
     
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                                                                                                               COLOR WHEEL
     
     
     
     
     color-wheelcolor-wheel
     
     
     
     PRIMARY COLORS: (red, blue, yellow) OR (magenta, cyan, yellow)One cannot make these
    colors by mixing, however,  they  make up all other colors.
     
    SECONDARY COLORS (green, purple, orange) These colors are created by mixing two primary
    colors together. The second set of colors
     
    TERTIARY or INTERMEDIATE: ( yellow-orange, red-orange, red-violet, blue-violet, blue-green,
    yellow-green) These colors are created by mixing one primary and one secondary color together.
    They are the third set.
     
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     COLOR SCHEME DEFINITIONS

     

    COLOR SCHEME- 

    A PLAN FOR SELECTING OR ORGANIZING COLORS

     

     

    MONOCHROMATIC- mono (one) – chroma (color) - a color scheme that uses only one color.

    The focus is value.

     

    ANALOGOUS - colors that are next to each other on the color wheel. One usually only uses two

    colors, sometimes three. (EX: blue, blue-violet or red, red-orange)

     

    COMPLEMENTARY -  colors that are opposite each other on the color wheel. (EX: red, green and

    blue, orange and yellow, violet)

     

    WARM – colors on the warm side of the color wheel

     

    COOL colors on the cool side of the color wheel

     

    NEUTRAL –colors such as gray or brown and do not stand out.

    One way to make a color neutral is to add a small amount of black or gray. Another way is to

    mix two complementary colors together.
     

     

     GRAPHIC DESIGN- A general term for artwork that in which letter forms are often,
    but not always, important and carefully placed visual elements.
    The goal of graphic design is to catch your eye and communicate a message.
    Examples include: Book illustration, posters, print designs, greeting cards etc. 
    We used graphic design when we made our 9-11 print projects
     
    ART CRITICISM- Is a method for looking at and judging art.  It is not simply saying you
    like or don't like and artwork. there are 4 steps to the critiquing process. In class we critiqued
    our mandalas and elements of art projects.
     
    1. DESCRIBE WHAT YOU SEE-
       Take time to look at the work and act as an art detective. You are gathering visual evidence and
         cues (think about how you described your mandalas)
    2. ANALYZE RELATIONSHIPS
       Analyze the evidence. Look for similarities, differences, repeated patterns in what you have observed.
        These will help you interpret the  artwork
    3. INTERPRET THE MEANING-
        Interpret the evidence. try to figure out what the artwork means based in what you have observed.
        Use all of your life and art knowledge.
    4. JUDGMENT-
        be fair an logical. Always cite evidence to support your judgment. ("I like it" or "I don't like it"
        are not sufficient answers)
     
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     DIFFERENT STYLES OF ART:
     
     REALISM: An art movement in which the artist represents the subject matter in a realistic way...
    It looks real.
     
    ABSTRACT: Art that the artist has changed in some way to simplify, leave out detail, distort, rearrange ,
    change colors etc. of the artwork.
             -NON-OBJECTIVE: It is a kind of abstract art. The viewer cannot tell what the subject matter is.
               It doesn't really look like anything. Think of the splatter paintings of Jackson Pollock.
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     SHADING TECHNIQUES WE STUDIED:
     
     HATCH- Using parallel lines to create light and shadow. The denser the lines, the darker the value (shadow)
     
    CROSS HATCH- Using perpendicular, intersecting lines to create a sense of light and shadow. similar to hatch.
     
    STIPPLING- Using dots to create shadow.
     
    LIGHT SOURCE- The source of light. It helps us do the following:
                                -  Find the highlight
                                - figure out where the shadow is in the object
                                - figure out where the cast shadow is
                                - make things look 3-d (modeled)
    CHIAROSCURO- Extreme shading. A strong contrast between light and dark.
    This can be gradual or sudden.
     
    HIGHLIGHT-  Where the light source makes contact with the surface of the object.
    It is the brightest part of the object. Shadow moves in the opposite direction.