• 2-1  Technology – the practical use of human knowledge to extend abilities, satisfy needs and wants, and solve problems.

    2-2 Invention- is a unique device, method, composition, process or discovery that did not exist previously.

           Innovation – an improvement to an existing invention. Better solutions that meet new requirements, or existing market   needs.

    2-3 Engineer -applies scientific knowledge, mathematics, and ingenuity to develop technical solutions for problems facing mankind. 

    2-8  Design process - is a series of steps that engineers follow to come up with a solution to a problem.

    2-9 Prototype - is an early sample, model, or release of a product built to test a concept or process or to act as a thing to be replicated or learned from.

    2-10 Design constraints -are conditions that need to happen for a project to be successful. These are the limitations.

    2-14  Truss - is a framework of one or more triangles constructed with straight members. The simplest form of a truss is a single triangle as seen in a framed roof.

    2-15 - Tension - a force that pulls material apart.

               Compression - a force that squeezes material together.

    2-16 - Symmetry - means a mirror image -- one side is the mirror image of the other. Symmetry can occur in any orientation as long as the image is the same on either side of the central axis.

    2-17 -  Live load: The dynamic or moving weight, such as vehicles, people, or snow, that has to be carried by a structure.

    2-18 - Gears - wheels with teeth used to transmit power from one point to another.

    2-22 Gear Ratio -a direct measure of the ratio of the rotational speeds of two or more interlocking gears. 

    2-23 Torque – a measure of how hard something is twisted.

            Speed - how fast an object is moving.

    2-24 -Lineman's pliers- a type of pliers used by linemen and electrical contractors primarily for gripping, twisting, bending and cutting wire.

             Needle nose pliers – A type of pliers used by artisans, electricians, and other tradesmen for cutting, holding, bending and snipping wire.

    3-1 Resistor- A device used in electrical circuits to  limit or regulate the flow of electrical current.

    3-2 Beam bridge -  the simplest structural form for bridge spans supported by an abutment or pier at each end. The beam bridge supports the least amount of weight and is best for short distances.

    3-3  Arch bridge -Arch bridges are one of the oldest types of bridges and have great natural strength. Instead of pushing straight down, the weight of an arch bridge is carried outward along the curve of the arch to the supports at each end.

    3-4 Suspension bridge -a bridge in which the weight of the deck is supported by vertical cables suspended from larger cables that run between towers and are anchored in abutments at each end.

    3-7  -Cable-stayed bridge - a bridge in which the weight of the deck is supported by a number of cables running directly to one or more towers.

    3–8 Pontoon bridge - a bridge formed from floating units, sometimes boats, tied together in a series.

    3-10 Cantilever - a horizontal member fixed at one end and free at the other.

    3-11 Civil engineer - designs and supervises large construction projects, including roads, buildings, airports, tunnels, dams, bridges, and systems for water supply and sewage treatment.

    3-14 Span - part of a bridge between two supports. The span will often determine the type of bridge that will be built. As the span increases so does the cost.

    3-15  I-Beam - a steel joist, consisting of a center steel plate centered between 2 steel strips (flanges), top and bottom, that are size based on anticipated spans and loads.

    3-16 Abutment - the ground end-support of a bridge, especially to resist the horizontal thrust of an arch.

    3-17 Caisson - A bridge foundation, usually embedded in a riverbed by continuously digging out the material within the bed, so that the caisson sinks.

    3-18 Mechanical advantage –the number of times a machine multiplies a force.

    3-21 Gusset Plate  3-21 - a metal plate used to unite multiple structural members of a truss. They may be welded, riveted, or bolted.

    3-22 Expansion Joint - a meeting point between two parts of a structure that is designed to allow for movement of the parts due to thermal or moisture factors while protecting the parts from damage

    3-23 Infrastructure -The basic physical systems of a business or nation. Examples include: transportation, communication, sewage, water, and electric systems.

    3-24 Jersey Barrier - a low, reinforced concrete wall wider at the base, tapering vertically to near mid-height, then continuing straight up to its top.

    3-25 Crank - a part of an axle or shaft bent out at right angles, for converting reciprocal to circular motion and vice versa.

    3-28  Propulsion -  is a means of creating force leading to movement. A propulsion system has a source of mechanical power (some type of engine or motor, muscles), and some means of using this power to generate force, such as wheel and axles, propellers, a propulsive nozzle, wings, fins or legs.

    3-29 Pawl - a hinged or pivoted device adapted to fit into a notch of a ratchet wheel to impart forward motion or prevent backward motion.

    3-31 Horsepower -  used to express the rate at which mechanical energy is expended. One horsepower equals 550 pounds per second.

    4-1 Ampere (Amp)  - a unit of measure of the rate of electron flow or current in an electrical conductor.

    4-4 Force - a push or a pull exerted on an object. Force can be exerted in many ways, such as muscle power, movement of air, and electromagnetism, to name a few.

    4-5 Unbalanced Force -  refers to the total or net force exerted on an object. An unbalanced force will create a change in motion.

    4-6 Newton’s First Law - Objects in motion stay in motion and objects at rest stay at rest unless acted upon by an outside force (unbalanced force).

    4-7 -Potentiometer -   a three-terminal resistor with a sliding or rotating contact that forms an adjustable voltage divider.

    4-8 System - combination of parts working together to accomplish a goal. The first step in solving a problem that involves a system is analyzing that system. This involves breaking it down into the parts that make it up, and seeing how those parts work together.

    4-18  Manufacturing-  the process of creating finished goods by hand or machine.

    4-19 Drill Press -A machine tool in which a rotating cutter, usually a twist drill, is pushed into a work piece to produce a hole.

    4-20 - Belt sander - a sander used in shaping and finishing wood and other materials. It consists of an electric motor that turns a pair of drums on which a continuous loop of sandpaper is mounted.

    4-21 Separating the process of removing pieces of a material. Separating processes include drilling, sawing, grinding, turning, milling, planning, and shaping. Almost all separating can be done with hand tools or electrically powered tools.

    4-22 Sandpaper- heavy paper coated on one side with sand or other abrasive material and used for smoothing surfaces.

    4-28 The Craft Approach -refers to making products one at a time from start to finish.

    4-29 Clamp - a device made of wood or metal that is used to hold two things together tightly.

    5-2 File - a metalworking, woodworking and plastic working tool used to cut fine amounts of material from a work piece

    5-3 Buffing - to rub an object made of metal, wood, or plastic in order to make it shine, using a soft, dry cloth and a type of polishing wax.

    5-4 Specifications  - the detailed description of the design standards of a product, including all necessary drawings, dimensions, environmental factors, ergonomic factors, aesthetic factors, cost, maintenance that will be needed, quality, safety, documentation and description.

    5-6 Wood Grain - the direction, texture, or pattern of fibers found in wood. Always sand with the grain. 

    5-9 Plastic -any of a group of synthetic or natural organic materials that may be shaped when soft and then hardened.

    5-10 Engineering materials – also known as production materials. They are the building blocks of our designed world. These materials must be found and processed before they are used.

    5-11 Pilot hole - a narrow hole drilled or punched into a surface, to facilitate the insertion of a wider screw, nail, drill bit, or other fastener.

    5-12 - Rocket- a missile, spacecraft, aircraft, or other vehicle that obtains thrust from a rocket engine. In all rockets, the exhaust is formed entirely from propellants carried within the rocket before use. Rocket engines work by action and reaction. Rocket engines push rockets forward simply by throwing their exhaust backwards and extremely fast.

    5-13 Thrust  - is the force which moves an aircraft through the air. Thrust is used to overcome the drag of an airplane, and to overcome the weight of a rocket. Thrust is generated by the engines of the aircraft through some kind of propulsion system.

    5-14  Aerodynamics - The study of how air flows around an object. 

    5-18 Payload -The passengers, crew, instruments, explosive charge or equipment carried by an aircraft, spacecraft, or rocket.

    5-20 -Robert H. Goddard - The American father of modern rocketry, built and tested the world's first liquid-fuel rocket in 1926. His achievement is considered as significant as the Wright Brothers' first flight. 

    5-23 Propellant -is a chemical substance used in the production of energy or pressurized gas that is subsequently used to create movement of a fluid or to generate propulsion of a vehicle, projectile, or other object.

    5-24 Airfoil- a shape designed so that air flowing around it produces useful motion.

    5-25 -Lift The force that directly opposes the weight of an airplane and holds the airplane in the air. Lift is generated by every part of the airplane, but mostly by the wings. Lift is a mechanical aerodynamic force produced by the motion of the airplane through the air.

    5-26  Sputnik - unmanned space missions launched by the Soviet Union in the late 1950s to demonstrate the viability of artificial satellites. Sputnik 1 was launched on October 4, 1957

    5-31 -V2 Rocket -The “V” in V-2 stood for Vergeltungswaffe (vengeance weapon). Traveling at 3,500 miles per hour and packing a 2,200-pound warhead, the missile had a range of 200 miles. 

    6-1 Fins- Attached to the end of the rocket, they provide guidance after the rocket leaves the launch-pad. 

    6-2 Launch Lug- Holds the rocket to the launch pad during ignition and liftoff to provide guidance.

    6-3 Apogee - the highest altitude a rocket reaches during flight.

    6-6 - Wernher von Braun - (23 March 1912 – 16 June 1977) was a German-born American aerospace engineer and space architect. He was the leading figure in the development of rocket technology in Nazi Germany and a pioneer of rocket and space technology in the United States.

    6-7 The National Aeronautics and Space Administration - the agency responsible for the nation's civilian space program and aeronautics and aerospace research. Founded on July 29, 1958.

    6-8 Aerospace Engineer-  Aerospace engineers develop new technologies for use in aviation, defense systems, and space exploration, often specializing in areas like structural design, guidance, navigation and control, instrumentation and communication, or production methods.

    6-9  Federal Aviation Administration - the national aviation authority of the United States. As an agency of the United States Department of Transportation, it has authority to regulate and oversee all aspects of American civil aviation.

    6-10 Streamer- Recovery device that helps to slow the rockets decent during touchdown.

    6-13 Nose Cone- Used to guide the airflow smoothly around the rocket.

    6-14 -Project Mercury - was the United States' first man-in-space program. It was designed to place a manned space capsule in orbital flight around the Earth, investigate man's reaction to this new environment, and recover the capsule and the pilot safely. Initiated in 1958, completed in 1963.

    6-15 International Space Station (ISS) - is a space station, or a habitable artificial satellite, in low Earth orbit. Its first component launched into orbit in 1998, the ISS is now the largest artificial body in orbit and can often be seen with the naked eye from Earth.