• 2-8 Technology – the practical use of human knowledge to extend abilities, satisfy needs and wants, and solve problems.

    2-10 Invention- is a unique device, method, composition, process or discovery that did not exist previously.

            Innovation – an improvement on an existing invention.

    2-11 Engineer -applies scientific knowledge, mathematics, and ingenuity to develop technical solutions for problems facing mankind. 

    2-19 Obsolete technology - outdated computer hardware, software, or other technology that is no longer used, even if they are in working condition. A technology often becomes obsolete when replaced by newer or better technology.

    2-22 Patent – Protection rights to an invention.
     
    Trademark – Rights to a product name, symbol, or logo.

    2-23 Design constraints are conditions that need to happen for a project to be successful. These are the limitations.

    2-24   Design process - is a series of steps that engineers follow to come up with a solution to a problem.

    2-25  Efficiency – ability to produce a specific outcome effectively with a minimum amount or quantity of waste, expense, or unnecessary effort

    2-26 System - combination of parts working together to accomplish a goal.

    3-1 -Infrastructure -The basic physical systems of a business or nation. Examples include: transportation, communication, sewage, water, and electric systems.

    3-2 -Aqueduct - a watercourse constructed to convey water. In modern engineering, the term aqueduct is used for any system of pipes, ditches, canals, tunnels, and other structures used for this purpose.

    3-4 Civil engineer - designs and supervises large construction projects, including roads, buildings, airports, tunnels, dams, bridges, and systems for water supply and sewage treatment.

    3-5 Environmental engineer - clean up contamination, or prevent contamination of the air, soil, and water. They study people’s health, and design solutions to improve environmental conditions.

    3-6 Structural Engineer – this branch of civil engineering analyzes and designs structures that will safely bear or resist  forces, such as gravity, wind, temperature and pressureIf a building was a human being, a Structural Engineer designs the skeleton.

    3-8 Water Resource Engineer - These engineers deal with the design and construction of hydraulic structures. These structures include dams, canals and water distribution system.

    3-9 Superfund site - are polluted locations in the United States requiring a long-term response to clean up hazardous material contamination.

    3-10 Live load- The dynamic or moving weight, such as vehicles, people, or snow, that has to be carried by a structure.

    3-11 Compression - a force that squeezes material together.

            Tension - aforce that pulls material apart

    3-12 Bridge - a structure built to span physical obstacles such as a body of water, valley, or road, for the purpose of providing passage over the obstacle.

    3-15 Beam bridge -  the simplest structural forms for bridge spans supported by an abutment or pier at each end. The beam bridge supports the least amount of weight and is best for short distances.

    3-16 Tower- a tall structure, usually taller than it is wide, often by a significant margin. Towers are generally built to take advantage of their height, and can stand alone on the ground, or as part of a larger structure.

    3-17  Arch bridge -one of the oldest types of bridges and have great natural strength. Instead of pushing straight down, the weight of an arch bridge is carried outward along the curve of the arch to the supports at each end. These supports, called the abutments, carry the load and keep the ends of the bridge from spreading out.

    3-18-Cable-stayed bridge - a bridge in which the weight of the deck is supported by a number of cables running directly to one or more towers.

    3-22 Suspension bridge -a bridge in which the weight of the deck is supported by vertical cables suspended from larger cables that run between towers and are anchored in abutments at each end.

    3-23 Truss -is a framework of one or more triangles constructed with straight members. The simplest form of a truss is one single triangle as seen in a framed roof.

    3-24 Cantilever - A horizontal member fixed at one end and free at the other.

    3-25 Span - Part of a bridge between two supports. The span will often determine the type of bridge that will be built. As the span increases so does the cost.

    3-26 – Pontoon bridge - a bridge formed from floating units, sometimes boats, tied together in a series.

    4-6 Caisson - a watertight structure which it is generally made up of timber, steel, and reinforced cement concrete (R.C.C) and constructed in connection with the excavation for the foundation of piers, bridges, and dock structures.

    4-7 Abutment - the ground end-support of a bridge, especially to resist the horizontal thrust of an arch.

    4-8 Anchorage - asecure fixing, usually in mass reinforced concrete, at the extremity of a side-span or anchor arm.

    4-9 Gusset Plate - a metal plate used to unite multiple structural members of a truss. They may be welded, riveted, or bolted.

    4-12 Expansion Joint - a meeting point between two parts of a structure that is designed to allow for movement of the parts due to thermal or moisture factors while protecting the parts from damage.

    4-13 Aerodynamics - the study of how air flows around an object.

    4-14 Drag - resistance of the air (technically a fluid) against the forward movement of an object.

    4-15 Airfoil- a shape designed so that air flowing around it produces useful motion.

    4-16 Thrust  - is the force which moves an aircraft through the air. Thrust is used to overcome the drag of an airplane, and to overcome the weight of a rocket. Thrust is generated by the engines of the aircraft through some kind of propulsion system.